By Charalampos S. Ierodiakonou
During this e-book, the writer collects and discusses perspectives and concepts of the traditional thinker Aristotle that have mental curiosity and compares them with latest theories. First, the soul-body challenge is gifted exhibiting that Aristotle accepts a psychosomatic team spirit theorizing the individual in a holistic process. Then the psychological features are defined based on the aristotelian definitions, including their interactions.
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Additional resources for The Psychology of Aristotle, The Philosopher: A Psychoanalytic Therapist's Perspective
The Stagirite is very clear on this: “He who acts in accordance with desire is an unrestrained man” (433a). In contrast to wish, which throughout the text is considered a purely mental function, desire carries also a biological connotation. That becomes evident in the following passage: “Hunger and thirst are also desires, hunger for dry and hot, thirst for liquid and cold” (414b). Appetite (orexis) is in most respects similar to desire, having the same main characteristic of acting irrespective of logic.
Also all scholars admit that (for various reasons, which they try to explain) in the Corpus Aristotelicum one may find a Greek term being used with different contents in pages of the same book. For instance, the term nous frequently is met meaning “thought” and at other places “mind”. Again, nous is interchanged with phronein and dokein without any obvious explanation. Regarding the three types of noein (thinking), I will try below to examine their meaning, as close as possible to what the Stagirite really wanted to impart, by selecting several passages from his books.
There is an epigrammatic and laconic phrase of his in On the Soul: “Reason (logos) and desire run contrary to each other” (433b). To appetites, Aristotle attributes intense and impulsive tendencies for satisfaction, “because above all it is the desirable object of appetite which originates a process (a movement) through thought and imagination” (433b). So appetites act against logic (which is always right), and appetites (like imagination) may often be wrong. To prove that logic still possesses the final decision on a subject, the philosopher reminds us that appetites are not dominant in morally strong people, who in spite of temptations do not act according to their desires but who, rather, follow reason.