By Kroto H.W., Walton D.R.M. (eds.)
The examine of carbon has been revolutionized because the discovery of the soccerball formed C60 molecule Buckminsterfullerene. This ebook examines the trendy research of the chemistry, physics and astrophysics of carbon, via contributions from prime employees within the topic. It incorporates a heritage of the origins of a soccerball constitution for the C60 molecule and a piece on its discovery and construction. It then appears to be like on the concept and the astrophysics and chemistry of the cloth. those contributions consequence from a gathering held on the Royal Society in October 1992. The contributions previously seemed within the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.
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Cruz-Montanez, A. Deiters, Org. Lett. 2008, 10, 4661. Bharat, R. Bhola, T. Bally, A. Valente, M. K. Cyr´anski, Ł. Dobrzycki, S. M. Spain, P. Rempała, M. R. Chin, B. T. King, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2010, 49, 399. 1 INTRODUCTION The wide presence of highly substituted six-membered aromatic compounds in useful materials, natural products, and pharmaceuticals has garnered signiﬁcant attention from synthetic chemists. This demand for aromatic compounds can easily be fulﬁlled by utilizing transition-metal-catalyzed [2 + 2 + 2] cycloaddition strategy .
Siebert, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 1996, 35, 1501. 20. (a) C. Ester, A. Maderna, H. Pritzkow, W. Siebert, Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. 2000, 1177. (b) Y. Gu, H. Pritzkow, W. Siebert, Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. 2001, 373. 21. A. -J. Maier, H. Pritzkow, W. Siebert, Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. 2004, 2635. 22. V. Gandon, D. Leca, T. Aechtner, K. P. C. Vollhardt, M. Malacria, C. Aubert, Org. Lett. 2004, 6, 3405. 23. (a) Y. -I. Ishii, H. Nishiyama, K. Itoh, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 3712. (b) Y. Yamamoto, K. -I. Ishii, H.
This engaging strategy utilizes easily available starting materials and converts them into highly valuable aromatic substances in a single chemical operation with the aid of a catalytic amount of transition-metal complexes. This aspect of catalysis is not only synthetically attractive but also mechanistically interesting. In general, these processes involve the formation of three new -bonds at the expense of cleavage of three -bonds in a single step. Additionally, most of these reactions take place in a highly atom-economical fashion.