By Nigel Spence
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Extra resources for British Cities. An Analysis of Urban Change
Cities with high rates of net in-migration follow a clear regional pattern; above average rates of net in-migration characterise all southern cities outside London; exceptions to this pattern are retirement centres and certain towns adjacent to the largest northern cities. In contrast above average rates of natural change characterise urban areas in a much wider tract of Southern and Midland England. A number of Midland cities, notably Birmingham and Coventry, have 50 and over 20 - 50 10- 20 British Urban Systems in Context Fig.
L10 51/61 F i g . 6 61/71 51/61 61/71 51/61 EMPLOYMENT R e l a t i v e population and r e l a t i v e employment change for t h e c o n s t i t u e n t zones of MELAs averaged for Economic Planning Regions, 1951-1961 and 1961-1971. POPULATION CHANGE Core 1951/61 (ten-year rate) 1971/74 1951/61 1961/71 Ring 1961/71 (ten-year rate) 1971/74 1951/61 O u t e r R i n g (ten-year rate) 1961/71 1971/74 30 28 26 Birmingham 24 London Liverpool Newcastle Manchester Leeds Liverpool Birmingham Leeds Glasgow Newcastle London Manchester £ -18J 1951/61 JG 1961/71 Core 1971/74 1951/61 (ten-year rate) 1971/74 Ring (tenyearrate) 1951/61 1961/71 Outer Ring Relative population change for the constituent zones of Million C i t i e s , 1951-1961, 1961-1971 and 1971-1971+ h-16 - -18 1971/74 (ten-year rate) 23 Fig.
At each level of scale the analysis first focusses on the economic or employment aspects of the urban areas moving to specifically demographic features via a treatment of socio-economic group characteristics. Some emphasis in the consideration of total employment will be given to the changing contribution made by females, and the way this is reflected in the trends in activity rates. For operational purposes here an activity rate is defined as the proportion of men or women who are in employment (including the unemployed), or the economically active population, compared to the total resident population (male or female) over the age of 15.