By D. Manley (Auth.)
This series of manuals addresses key concerns resembling caliber, protection and reliability for these operating and coaching within the manufacture of biscuits, cookies and crackers. every one guide offers a self-sufficient consultant to a key subject, packed with functional recommendation on problem-solving and troubleshooting drawn from over 30 years within the industry.
What occurs in a Baking Oven o kinds of Ovens o Post-Oven methods o Cooling o dealing with o Troubleshooting Tips
This handbook describes what's enthusiastic about baking and cooling biscuits from dough items which were put on the oven band
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Extra resources for Biscuit, Cookie and Cracker Manufacturing Manuals. Manual 4: Baking and Cooling of Biscuits
This means that the protein is imperfectly hydrated to form gluten and when the dough is heated there is insufficient water present to gelatinise much of the starch. The structure relies more on a sugary or toffee-like matrix which becomes softer rather than sets as the temperature rises. Thus during the baking of sugar-rich short doughs an expansion, in all directions, is observed followed by some collapse in the thickness. The spread of the dough piece and collapse are responsible for the cracked surface of biscuits like ginger nuts and crunch types.
Many short doughs with low fat do not spread during baking and can be baked on wires. These types of short dough biscuits may require docker holes to achieve a flat baked biscuit and to allow good moisture removal from the centre parts. However checking in all but the largest short dough biscuits is unusual. Baking times are generally longer than for hard dough biscuits because lower temperatures are required to prevent excessive coloration. The baking times are related to biscuit thickness and short dough biscuits can be very thick and are generally thicker than hard dough types.
The protein in the dough comes from the flour and ingredients like milk powders and cheese. The reducing sugars do not come from sucrose but from ingredients like glucose syrup, invert syrup and milk powders. Most of the alkaline reaction is due to sodium bicarbonate. If this chemical is omitted from the recipe coloration will be much less. Colour also develops associated with dextrinisation of starch and caramelisation of sugars. At even higher temperatures the biscuit structure chars or bums.