By Michael of Ephesus, Aspasius, David Konstan
Aristotle devotes books 8-9 of the Nicomachean Ethics to friendship, distinguishing 3 forms: a first-rate sort inspired by means of the other's personality; and different kinds inspired through application or excitement. he is taking up Plato's concept that one is aware oneself larger as mirrored in another's eyes, as offering one of many advantages of friendship, and he additionally sees precise friendship as modelled on actual self-love. He additional compares friendship with justice, and illustrates the ubiquity of friendship by way of touching on the way we aid wayfarers as though they have been kinfolk (oikeion), a notice he's taking from Plato's dialogue of affection. in lots of of those respects he most likely motivated the Stoic idea of justice as in response to the ordinary kinship (oikeiotes) one feels first and foremost for oneself at delivery and, finally, for misplaced wayfarers. Of the 3 commentaries translated the following, that through the second-century advert Aristotelian Aspasius is the earliest extant remark on Aristotle; the second one is by way of Michael of Ephesus within the 12th century; the 3rd is of unknown date and authorship. Aspasius concerns even if there's just one type of friendship with a unmarried definition.But he plumps for a verdict no longer given via Aristotle, that the first type of friendship serves as a focus for outlining the opposite . Aspasius choices up connections together with his Stoic contemporaries. Michael cites Christians and attracts from Neoplatonists the concept there's a self-aware a part of the soul, and that Aristotle observed contributors as bundles of properties.
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Extra resources for Aspasius, Michael of Ephesus, Anonymous: On Aristotle Nicomachean Ethics 8-9
They both have a similarity in respect to blood and they are the same as the father although they have been differentiated in regard to their bodies. ‘Cousins and the remaining kinsmen’ (1162a1) such as grandchildren and great grandchildren68 bear a relationship to one another because they have been begotten from the same brothers. They are the more related in the degree that they are near to the founder of the lineage. ‘By the degree’, he says, ‘that a household is more fundamental than a city’ (1162a18-19) and more primary, in that degree is childbearing [fundamental] to animals and especially human beings; for just as the city would not arise if the household did not exist, so neither human life nor love would exist if children were not begotten as the dearest things.
Those in positions of power’ (1158a27-8) (he means tyrants in positions of power and those who are called kings, but are not really, since they are licentious) treat those who are termed their friends as differentiated, for some are pleasant for them, others useful. The cause is that ‘they neither seek pleasing ones with virtue’ (for the same ones would also be useful) ‘nor ones who are useful for noble things’ (1158a30-1) (for the same ones would also be pleasing). For virtuous men are useful for noble things.
The argument] not be appropriate to good men and those who have acquired complete love. For it is not by referring to themselves that they love their friends, even if something good arises to those who love from those who are loved, but rather [they love them] because those who are loved are good. But these things are fitted to one another and are not disjoined, for a good man is also good for his friend. He bids that a person seek to acquire those who are really good as friends, and these would be simultaneously good and good for their friends.