By Ken Gilleo
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Extra info for Area Array Packaging Handbook: Manufacturing and Assembly
This means that the liquids are ideal for both short runs and quick time-to-market applications. Die-up designs require that a dam first be placed around the chip to retain liquid encapsulant. 19 by needle dispensing thick encapsulant in a pattern. The low-viscosity fill-type encapsulant is then dispensed over the chip. Both the dam and encapsulant are hardened in the same bake process. A die- or cavity-down package is inverted, and the bottom die cavity is filled with a needle dispenser. Recently, high-output dispensers have been offered with up to four heads.
The organic board behaved like it had a much lower CTE, more like that of the chip. Solder balls on the BGA substrate therefore were placed under greater strain when the BGA was assembled to a PWB. The organic PWB and chip carrier would be expected to expand at similar rates, except for the area under the chip, where natural movement is restricted. This localized differential rate of expansion caused sufficient under-chip stress to produce selected solder ball failure. Subsequent BGA designs relieved the under-chip area, thus avoiding full arrays.
C4 and flip chips are covered in detail in Chap. ” Wire bonding (WB) was being developed independent of several DCA semiconductor producers. While IBM sought a very dense and extremely reliable main-frame computer package system, others needed efficiency, versatility, and low cost. The most important attribute of WB was the ability to “program” the wiring locations and thus eliminate tooling. WB also could be used on chips as received. WB allows the die size and pad configuration to be changed within reasonable limits without a package or lead-frame change.