By Fuad H. Megally, M. Mansoor
Contents: guide - Textbook - Written workouts publication - Spoken workouts booklet - Alphabet ebook - Translation booklet - research leaflet - "Getting began" cassette - nine language cassettes.
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Additional info for Arabic course Handbook Explanatory Notes Vocabularies
Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 791–799. 25 ELEMENTS OF BONDING IN HYPERVALENT COMPOUNDS 41 is still tetravalent in both compounds but its OS is 0. In the same manner, CN often equals valence. While these equalities can be understood on a case-by-case basis, it’s probably best to view them as coincidental. Another very important concept in this connection is that of FC. FC is the charge remaining on an atom when all the ligands have been removed homolytically. FCs are the charges that are commonly shown in structural formulas and reaction mechanisms.
Our approach may be summarized as follows: 1. Look at the product structure(s) carefully and determine what bonds have been broken in the course of the reaction and what new bonds have been formed. 2. Identify the nucleophile and the electrophilic site of attack. 3. Apply steps (1) and (2) iteratively until you arrive at the product structures (assuming they are known). Step (1) consists of pattern recognition, somewhat similar to the logic involved in putting together a puzzle. Note that in the quote at the beginning of the chapter, Sherlock Holmes describes this ability to “reason backward” as easy!
The expression means that the chemical properties of first-row elements are anomalous relative to those of their heavier congeners. Let us go through the above four rules one by one and see how well they hold up in a main-group inorganic context. 1. The octet rule breaks down routinely as soon as one goes down to period 3. Main-group centers with more than eight electrons in their valence shells abound for period 3 and below. Molecules containing such centers are called hypervalent. Well-known examples include SiF6 2− , PF5 , PF6 − , SF4 , SF6 , BrF3 , IF5 , IF7 , XeF2 , XeF4 , XeF6 , and XeF8 2− .