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Ancient Armies by Newark T., McBride A.

By Newark T., McBride A.

This article by means of Tim Newark explores the various interesting peoples who comprised the traditional armies of the center East: the Sumerians, who have been the 1st to introduce using bronze into struggle, and have been centuries sooner than the Egyptians within the use of the wheel - The Akkadians, whose citizen military was once composed nearly totally of sunshine troops - The Babylonians, whose humans have been granted land in go back for military provider - the horned warriors of the Elamites - the Egyptians, with thier heavy spearmen and archers - the tribal and warlike Libyans - Nubians and Ethiopians - Hyksos - the armies of the Hittite Empire - the ocean humans and others.

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Plantation Hierarchies Like the symmetrically spaced trees on rubber plantations, order reigned in the careful hierarchy from plantation manager, to European assistants, to office clerks and overseers, to the laborers known as “coolies,” who actually did the physical work of clearing the forest, planting trees, tapping trees, hauling latex from the trees to processing areas, and constant weeding. Managers could be quite brutal with assistants, ­seasoned assistants with new assistants, assistants with overseers, and especially overseers with laborers.

6 Plantation workers’ barracks at Goodyear Wingfoot Estates. Photograph (42dw) dated January 15, 1935, Goodyear Collection. Photo reprinted with permission of Archival Services, University Libraries, University of Akron. Initially, plantations had rudimentary “coolie lines” or barracks, which improved in construction quality over time. This image shows Goodyear laborers’ barracks from the 1930s. Even then several had no rooms or partitions, serving instead as huge dormitories for male workers. ” Echoing the lines “half‐savage and half‐child” of Rudyard Kipling’s description of the colonized in his famous imperial poem “The White Man’s Burden” (1899), one author of a book on rubber plantations described Malaya as a land of little brown men….

Discipline was tight. m. m. (workdays were generally shorter by the 1930s). At the morning assembly, overseers took attendance and formed the day’s work groups. Trees were tapped early in the morning, when the latex flowed best; gathering and processing were done later. While we usually associate careful attention to time with the steam‐powered industrial factory, earlier sugar plantations had already been intricately organized operations with tightly controlled slave workforces—this well before the appearance of British textile mills at the height of the Industrial Revolution.

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