By Luis B. Oliveira, Jorge R. Fernandes, Igor M. Filanovsky, Chris J. M. Verhoeven, Manuel M. Silva
The next are a few positive aspects of study and layout of Quadrature Oscillators make it diverse from the prevailing literature on digital oscillators: (1) concentrate on quadrature oscillators with exact quadrature and occasional phase-noise, required via smooth verbal exchange platforms; (2) an in depth comparative examine of quadrature LC and RC oscillators, together with cross-coupled LC quasi-sinusoidal oscillators, cross-coupled RC rest oscillators, a quadrature RC oscillator-mixer, and two-integrator oscillators; (3) a radical research of the influence of mismatches at the phase-error and the phase-noise; (4) the realization that quadrature RC oscillators could be a useful substitute to LC oscillators while quarter and price can be minimized (in cross-coupled RC oscillators either the quadrature-error and phase-noise are diminished, while in LC oscillators the coupling raises the phase-noise.
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Additional info for Analysis and Design of Quadrature Oscillators (Analog Circuits and Signal Processing)
2 Quadrature Relaxation Oscillator without Mismatches . . . . . . . . . . 3 Quadrature Relaxation Oscillator with Mismatches . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Simulation Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Phase-Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Phase-noise in a Single Relaxation Oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Phase-noise in Quadrature Relaxation Oscillators .
The cross-coupled NMOS transistors (M) generate a negative resistance, which is in parallel with the lossy LC tank (Fig. 21). In Fig. 21 the small signal model of the differential pair is shown. Since the circuit is symmetric, the controlled sources have the currents shown in Fig. 28) Thus, the differential pair realizes a negative resistance (Fig. 21) that compensates the losses in the tank circuit. 5 Mixers Mixers are a fundamental block of RF front-ends. Nowadays, a research effort is done to realize a fully integrated front-end, to obtain cost and space savings.
In addition to the relaxation oscillator, another RC oscillator will be studied: the two-integrator oscillator. This oscillator is very interesting because it can have either linear or non-linear behaviour, as we will see in detail in Chapter 6. LC oscillators are usually quasi-linear oscillators. They can use as resonator element: dielectric resonators, crystals, striplines, and LC tanks. These oscillators are known by their good phase-noise performance, since Q is normally much higher than one.