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Makes use of psychoanalytic theories of studying to discover modern concerns in schooling.
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Extra info for After-Education: Anna Freud, Melanie Klein, and Psychoanalytic Histories of Learning
The work of thinking carries the traces and disturbances of both sides, but what invokes the need to think, as opposed to the capacity to think, is the presence of the other. This too is a fact of natality: there needs to be another. Likierman’s (2001) discussion of Melanie Klein concludes with her view that, like other analysts, Klein wandered into the dramatic scenarios of inner worlds and saw in this theater the promise and perils of natality, but not of education per se. Klein’s theories are not prescriptions and so, in Likierman’s words, “There is no general message in this about whether humanity is destructive or benign, only the idea that it needs to battle with destructive and loving tendencies” (196).
Freud was forty-seven and had been practicing child analysis since about 1922. 5 By the time of the Controversies, both women had produced inﬂuential publications that shaped the very questions that child analysts would ask. Each had followers of her own approach: people who had been analyzed either by her or by Freud’s ﬁrst circle. If all of these details suggest rather established camps, it also was the case that at the time of the Controversies neither were their respective theories completed.
Together with happy experiences,” she writes, unavoidable grievances reinforce the innate conﬂict between love and hate, in fact, basically between life and death instincts, DIFFICULT EDUCATION 27 and result in the feeling that a good and bad breast exist. As a consequence, early emotional life is characterized by a sense of losing and regaining the good object. In speaking of an innate conﬂict between love and hate, I am implying that the capacity both for love and for destructive impulses is, to some extent, constitutional, though varying individually in strength and interacting from the beginning with external conditions.