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Acids and Bases (Essential Chemistry) by Kristi Lew

By Kristi Lew

Acids and bases are crucial elements of the flora and fauna that play key roles in medication and undefined. This publication takes a detailed examine those attention-grabbing, but contrasting, ingredients, giving concrete, genuine international examples with a variety of vibrant illustrations.

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Extra resources for Acids and Bases (Essential Chemistry)

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A color change is often the sign that a chemical reaction has occurred, and this is no exception: ­Acid-­base indicators are actually acids or bases themselves. They change colors because the acid and its conjugate base (or the base and its conjugate acid) are different colors. For example, suppose an acidic indicator, abbreviated HIn (this is not really a chemical formula, it is just a way to show an indicator that has hydrogen ions to donate), is dissolved in water. ” Phenolphthalein looks like water in acidic and neutral conditions, but turns to a deep ­reddish-­violet, ­winelike color when a base is added to it (a).

Likewise, the lower the pKb value, the stronger the ­base. The terms weak and strong do not have the same meaning as the terms dilute and concentrated. The strength of an acid or a base is completely dependant on how it dissociates in water. 7 44 acids and bases much acid or base is in the solution relative to the amount of water. Making a concentrated solution of a weak acid or base is possible by simply adding more acid or base to the solution. Likewise, a dilute solution of a strong acid or base can be made by adding more water to the solution.

Likewise, there cannot be more potassium atoms on the right side of the equation than on the left side. There-­ fore, sulfuric acid and potassium hydroxide must not react in a 1:1 ratio. Instead, for every molecule of sulfuric acid that reacts, there must be two molecules of potassium ­hydroxide: H2SO4 + 2 KOH ➝ K2SO4 + ­ H2O A number placed in front of a compound in a chemical equation shows the number of molecules of that substance needed for a balanced chemical equation. Now, if the number of atoms of each element on the reactant side is the same as the number of those same elements on the product side of the equation, the equation is ­balanced: + 2 KOH ➝ K2SO4 + H2O H2SO4 4 hydrogen atoms 2 hydrogen ­atoms 1 sulfur atom 1 sulfur ­atom 6 oxygen atoms 5 oxygen ­atoms 2 potassium atoms 2 potassium ­atoms The hydrogen and oxygen atoms, however, are still out of balance.

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