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A World History of Rubber: Empire, Industry, and the by Stephen L. Harp

By Stephen L. Harp

An international historical past of Rubber is helping readers comprehend and achieve new insights into the social and cultural contexts of worldwide construction and intake, from the 19th century to at the present time, throughout the interesting tale of 1 commodity.

Divides the insurance into topics of race, migration, and exertions; gender on plantations and in factories; call for and daily intake; international Wars and nationalism; and resistance and independence
Highlights the interrelatedness of our global lengthy ahead of the age of globalization and the worldwide social inequalities that persist today
Discusses key innovations of the 19th and 20th centuries, together with imperialism, industrialization, racism, and inequality, throughout the lens of rubber
offers a fascinating and obtainable narrative for all degrees that's jam-packed with archival learn, illustrations, and maps

Acknowledgments ix Timeline xi international Rubber and Tire businesses xvii creation: Why Rubber? 1 worldwide Connections eight 1 Race, Migration, and exertions 10 Wild Rubber and Early eleven Wild Rubber and Empire 14 Plantations development: Rationality and potency 17 Plantation Hierarchies 21 Race and within the usa and Europe 29 2 girls and Gender on Plantations and in Factories forty Gendering the Jungle and the Plantation forty two Asian girls on Plantations forty four eu girls and Racism forty eight The Colonizing lady 50 Gendered construction within the usa and Europe fifty two Rubber and intercourse in Indochine fifty six three call for and daily intake sixty one daily intake on Southeast Asian Plantations sixty two classification and intake in North the US and Europe sixty four Race and intake in Europe and North the United States sixty eight Gender and intake in Europe and North the USA seventy one Gendering replica seventy seven four international Wars, Nationalism, and Imperialism eighty three global battle I eighty four See the US First on solid Roads 86 Flying for the state 88 limiting Rubber within the Wake of conflict ninety American Assertions: Herbert Hoover and US alternate ninety one Firestone and acquaintances ninety four Firestone in Liberia ninety six Germany: Colonies and chemical substances ninety nine international conflict II and the united states Scramble for Rubber 102 Nazi Racism and Buna at Auschwitz a hundred and five Imperialism and Nationalism within the Wake of global struggle II 107 five Resistance and Independence 111 Plantations and Resistance 112 international monetary difficulty and Plantation hard work 118 good fortune of the Smallholders one hundred twenty Plantations less than the japanese 124 Independence and Decolonization 126 United Rubber employees 131 end: Forgetting and Remembering Rubber 137 urged Readings 142 Index 157

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Plantation Hierarchies Like the symmetrically spaced trees on rubber plantations, order reigned in the careful hierarchy from plantation manager, to European assistants, to office clerks and overseers, to the laborers known as “coolies,” who actually did the physical work of clearing the forest, planting trees, tapping trees, hauling latex from the trees to processing areas, and constant weeding. Managers could be quite brutal with assistants, ­seasoned assistants with new assistants, assistants with overseers, and especially overseers with laborers.

6 Plantation workers’ barracks at Goodyear Wingfoot Estates. Photograph (42dw) dated January 15, 1935, Goodyear Collection. Photo reprinted with permission of Archival Services, University Libraries, University of Akron. Initially, plantations had rudimentary “coolie lines” or barracks, which improved in construction quality over time. This image shows Goodyear laborers’ barracks from the 1930s. Even then several had no rooms or partitions, serving instead as huge dormitories for male workers. ” Echoing the lines “half‐savage and half‐child” of Rudyard Kipling’s description of the colonized in his famous imperial poem “The White Man’s Burden” (1899), one author of a book on rubber plantations described Malaya as a land of little brown men….

Discipline was tight. m. m. (workdays were generally shorter by the 1930s). At the morning assembly, overseers took attendance and formed the day’s work groups. Trees were tapped early in the morning, when the latex flowed best; gathering and processing were done later. While we usually associate careful attention to time with the steam‐powered industrial factory, earlier sugar plantations had already been intricately organized operations with tightly controlled slave workforces—this well before the appearance of British textile mills at the height of the Industrial Revolution.

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